Programa de rehabilitación integral en pacientes con dolor crónico de espalda: un estudio de caso

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Autores

Claudia Pachón Flórez
claudia_pachon@corposucre.edu.co
Abel García
abel_garcia@corposucre.edu.co
Ricardo Peña Flórez
ricardo_pena@corposucre.edu.co
Sonia Carolina Peralta Díaz
sonia_peralta@corposucre.edu.co

Resumen

La utilización de estrategias combinadas para el manejo de pacientes con dolor crónico, ha demostrado eficacia en su recuperación. Este trabajo tiene como objetivo mostrar la aplicación de abordajes psicológicos y fisioterapéuticos en la rehabilitación de un paciente masculino de 62 años con dolor crónico de espalda. Las estrategias fisioterapéuticas aplicadas se basaron en la aplicación de técnicas Tens, Ultrasonido, ejercicios de balonterapia, ejercicios isométricos e isotónicos, medios físicos, técnica de Mckenzy y ejercicios de cadenas cinética, las cuales se suministraron con una duración de 1 hora por cada sesión diaria, durante un periodo de 15 días y el efecto del tratamiento aplicado se evaluó mediante la valoración de problemas osteomusculares (OM). El tratamiento psicológico de acompañamiento se basó en un entrenamiento cognitivo conductual (ECC) suministrado con una periodicidad semanal; el nivel de mejora de vida del paciente fue medido con la escala de ansiedad Hamilton, y el cuestionario de estrategias de afrontamiento (CIQ) y Euro-gol. Las valoraciones fisioterapéuticas se aplicaron antes, durante y después del tratamiento, mientras que las valoraciones psicológicas se aplicaron antes y después, y demostraron una rehabilitación integral eficiente; disminuyendo el dolor crónico de espalda, aumentando la movilidad y mejorando la calidad de vida al disminuir los índices de dolor a la palpación y al movimiento, medida en escala numérica de Borg. Igualmente se observó disminución en el índice de discapacidad lumbar de Oswestry, disminución en los niveles de ansiedad y recuperación total del paciente lo que demuestra que la rehabilitación integral del paciente fue eficaz.

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Derechos de autor 2017 Revista Colombiana de Rehabilitación

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