Envejecimiento: Cambios Estructurales y Papel De La Facilitación Neuromuscular Propioceptiva

Contenido principal del artículo

Autores

Henry Humberto León Ariza
henryleon@usantotomas.edu.co
Angie Catherine Hernández Díaz
angie.hernandez@usantotomas.edu.co

Resumen

En el mundo, el porcentaje de adultos mayores se encuentra en aumento, obligando al desarrollo continuo de políticas en salud. En razón a los cambios morfológicos y estructurales propios del músculo esquelético durante el envejecimiento, que llevan a su deterioro, varios modelos de ejercicio han sido puestos a prueba, incluyendo el entrenamiento de la fuerza explosiva y la flexibilidad. La Facilitación Neuromuscular Propioceptiva, ha surgido como una alternativa de entrenamiento, gracias a los resultados positivos demostrados en el área de la prevención y la rehabilitación; sin embargo en el adulto mayor sano no ha sido posible demostrar dichos beneficios, presentándose por el contrario dificultades en la aplicación de los programas, dados por los tiempos necesarios para hacer tangibles los resultados y los riesgos que con su implementación se puedan presentar. Es necesario desarrollar nuevas investigaciones que involucren técnicas combinadas de entrenamiento, con el fin de comprender y optimizar la respuesta al ejercicio físico en el adulto mayor.

Palabras clave:

Detalles del artículo

Licencia

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8. Chow, T. P., & Nq, G. Y. (2010). Active, passive and proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation stretching are comparable in improving the knee flexion range in people with total knee replacement: a randomized controlled trial. Clin Rehabil, 24(10), 911-918.

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2. Alder, S. S., Beckers, D., & Buck, M. (2008). PNF in Practice (3° ed.). Germany: Springer.

3. Alter, M. J. (2004). The Science of Flexibility (3° ed.). Champaing, IL: Human Kinetics.

4. Batista, L. H., Vilar, A. C., de Almeida Ferreira, J. J., Rebelatto, J. R., & Salvini, T. F. (2009). Active stretching improves flexibility, joint torque, and functional mobility in older women. Am J Phys Med Rehabil,88(10), 815-822.

5. Burke, D. G., Culligan, C. J., Holt, L. E., & McKinnon, N. C. (2000).Equipment designed to simulate proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation flexibility training. J Strength Cond Res, 14(2), 135-139.

6. Caplan, N., Rogers, R., Parr, M. K., & Hayes, P. R. (2009). The effect of proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation and static stretch trai- ning on running mechanics. J Strength Cond Res, 23(4), 1175-1180.

7. Chalmers, G. (2004). Re-examination of the possible role of Golgi tendon organ and muscle spindle reflexes in proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation muscle stretching. Sports Biomech, 3(1), 159-183.

8. Chow, T. P., & Nq, G. Y. (2010). Active, passive and proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation stretching are comparable in improving the knee flexion range in people with total knee replacement: a randomized controlled trial. Clin Rehabil, 24(10), 911-918.

9. Clemson, L., Fiatarone Singh, M. A., Bundy, A., Cumming, R. G.,Manollaras, K., O’Loughlin, P. et al. (2012). Integration of balance and strength training into daily life activity to reduce rate of falls in older people (the LiFE study): randomised parallel trial. BMJ, 345, e4547. Retrieved from PM:22872695

10. Coutinho, W. L., DeLuca, C., Salvini, T. F., & Vidal, B. C. (2006). Bouts of passive stretching after immobilization of the rat soleus muscle increase collagen macromolecular organization and muscle fiber area. Connect Tissue Res, 47(5), 278-286.

11. Decicco, P., V, & Fischer, M. M. (2005). The effects of proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation stretching on shoulder range of motion in overhand athletes. J Sports Med Phys fitness, 45(2), 183-187.

12. Doherty, T. J. (2003). Aging and sarcopenia. J Appl Physiol, 95, 1717-1727.doi:10.1152/japplphysiol.00347.2003

13. Ettinger, M. P. (2003). Aging bone and osteoporosis: strategies for preventing fractures in the elderly. Arch Intern Med, 163(18), 2237-2246.

14. Feland, J. B., & Marin, H. N. (2004). Effect of submaximal contraction intensity in contract-relax proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation stretching. Br J Sports Med, 38(4), E18.

15. Feland, J. B., Myrer, J. W., & Merrill, R. M. (2001). Acute changes in hamstring flexibility: PNF versus static stretch in senior athletes. Phys Ther Sport, 2, 186-193. doi:10.1054/ptsp.2001.0076

16. Feland, J. B., Myrer, J. W., Schulthies, S. S., Fellingham, G. W., & Measom, G. W. (2001). The effect of duration of stretching of the hamstring muscle group for increasing range of motion in people aged 65 years or older. Phys Ther, 81(5), 1110-1117.

17. Ferber, R., Osterning, L., & Gravelle, D. (2002). Effect of PNF stretch techniques on knee flexor muscle EMG activity in older adults. J Electromyogr Kinesiol, 12(5), 391-397.

18. Franco, B. L., Signorelli, G. R., Trajano, G. S., & Oliveira, C. G. (2008).Acute effects of different stretching exercises on muscular endurance. J Strength Cond Res, 22(6), 1832-1837.

19. Frontera, W. R., Hugues, V. A., Lutz, K. J., & Evans, W. J. (1991). A crosssectional study of muscle strength and mass in 45- to 78-yr-old men and women. J Appl Physiol, 71(2), 644-650.

20. Gajdosik, R. L., Vander Linden, D. W., McNair, P. J., Riggin, T. J.,Albertson, J. S., Mattick, D. J. et al. (2004). Slow passive stretch and release characteristics of the calf muscles of older women with limited dorsiflexion range of motion. Clin Biomech, 19(4), 398-406.

21. Gajdosik, R. L., Vander Linden, D. W., McNair, P. J., Riggin, T. J., Albertson, J. S., Mattick, D. J. et al. (2005). Viscoelastic properties of short calf muscle-tendon units of older women: Effects of slow and fast passive dorsiflexion stretches in vivo. Eur J Appl Physiol, 95(2-3),131-139.

22.Gajdosik, R. L., Vander Linden, D. W., McNair, P. J., Williams, A. K.,& Riggin, T. J. (2005). Effects of an eight-week stretching program on the passive-elastic properties and function of the calf muscles of older women. Clin Biomech, 20(9), 973-983.

23.Gallon, D., Rodacki, A. L. F., Hernandez, S. G., Drabovski, B., Outi,T., Bittencourt, L. R. et al. (2011). The effects of stretching on the flexibility, muscle performance and functionality of institutionalized older women. Braz J Med Biol Res, 44(3), 229-235. doi:10.1590/S0100879X2011007500012

24. Godges, J. J., Mattson-Bell, M., Thorpe, D., & Shah, D. (2003). The immediate effects of soft tissue mobilization with proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation on glenohumeral external rotation and overhead reach. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther, 33(12), 713-718.

25. Goldspink, G. (1999). Molecular Mechanisms Involved in Determination of Muscle Fibre Mass and Phenotype. Adv Exerc Sports Physiol, 5,27-39.

26. Gomes, A. R., Cornachione, A., Salvini, T. F., & Mattiello-Sverzut,A. C. (2007). Morphological effects of two protocols of passive stretch over the immobilized rat soleus muscle. J Anat, 210(3), 328-335.

27. Goodpaster, B. H., Chomentowski, P., Ward, B. K., Rossi, A., Glynn, N. W., Delmonico, M. J. et al. (2008). Effects of physical activity on strength and skeletal muscle fat infiltration in older adults: a randomized controlled trial. J Appl Physiol, 105, 1498-1503. doi:10.1152/japplphysiol.90425.2008

28. Higgs, F., & Winter, S. L. (2009). The effect of a four-week proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation stretching program on isokinetic torque production. J Strength Cond Res, 23(5), 1442-1447.

29. Kabat, H. (1947). Studies of neuromuscular dysfunction, X: treatment of chronic multiple sclerosis with neostigmine and intensive muscle re-education. Perm Found Med Bull, 5(1), 1-14.

29. Kerrigan, D. C., Xenopoulos-Oddsson, A., Sullivan, M. J., Lelas, J. J., & Riley, P. O. (2003). Effect of a hip flexor-stretching program on gait in the elderly. Arch Phys Med Rehabil, 84(1), 1-6.

30. Khamwong, P., Pirunsan, U., & Paungmali, A. (2011). A prophylactic effect of proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) stretching on symptoms of muscle damage induced by eccentric exercise of the wrist extensors. J Bodyw Mov Ther, 15(4), 507-516.

31. Klein, D. A., Stone, W. J., Phillips, W. T., Gangi, J., & Hartman, S.(2002). PNF Training and Physical Function in Assisted-Living Older Adults. J Againg Phys Activ, 10, 476-488.

32. Kofotolis, N., & Kellis, E. (2006). Neuromuscular Facilitation Programs on Muscle Endurance, flexibility, and Functional Performance in Women With Chronic Low Back Pain. Phys Ther, 86(7), 1001-1012.

33. Lord, S. R., Sherrington, C., Menz, H. B., & Close, J. C. (2000). Falls in older people: risk factors and strategies for prevention. Cambridge: Cam- bridge University Press.

34. Magnusson, S. P., Simonsen, E. B., Aagaard, P., Dyhre-Poulsen, P., McHugh, M. P., & Kjaer, M. (1996). Mechanical and physiological responses to stretching with and without preisometric contraction in humans. Arch Phys Med Rehabil, 77(4), 373-378.

35. Mahomed, S., Al-Obaidi, S., & Al-Zoabi, B. (2008). Outcome measures and psychomotor skills related to shoulder conditions for clinical orthopedic training. Med Princ Pract, 17(6), 481-485.

36. Manoel, M. E., Harris-Love, M. O., Danoff, J., V, & Miller, T. A. (2008).Acute effects of static, dynamic, and proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation stretching on muscle power in women. J Strength Cond Res,22(5), 1528-1534.

37. Marek, S. M., Cramer, J. T., Fincher, A. L., Massey, L. L., Dangelmaier, S. M., Purkayastha, S. et al. (2005). Acute Effects of Static and Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation Stretching on Muscle Strength and Power Output. J Athl Train, 40(2), 94-103.

38. Mirek, E., Chwala, W., Longawa, K., Rudzinska, M., Adamkiewicz,P., & Szczudilik, A. (2003). Proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation method of therapeutic rehabilitation in the treatment of patients withParkinson disease. Neurol Neurochir Pol, 37(Suppl 5), 89-102.

39. Nocon, M., Hiemann, T., Muller-Riemenschneider, F., Thalau, F.,Roll, S., & Willich, S. N. (2008). Association of physical activity with all-cause and cardiovascular mortality: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Eur.J.Cardiovasc.Prev.Rehabil., 15(3), 239-246. doi:10.1097/HJR.0b013e3282f55e09 [doi];00149831-200806000-00001 [pii]. Retrieved from PM:18525377

41. Organización de Naciones Unidas. (2009). World Population Ageing.

42. Orsini, M., De Freitas, M. R. G., Oliveira, A. S. B., Silva, J. G., Leite,

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